Designing for HD: An Essential Checklist

Many motion graphics artists are tackling their first high-definition jobs. In some respects, HD is just like SD, only larger. However, HD also comes with a number of issues that can throw some major curves at you. As with all problems-in-waiting, it’s best to solve them before you start the job, rather than when you think you’re almost finished. Here are questions you need to ask your clients before your next HD job, and what the implications are- technical and artistic the answers you may get.

Frame rate issues

With SD video, frame rate is dictated by the format, such as 29.97 fps (frames per second) for NTSC and 25 fps for PAL. The video is also probably interlaced. If the footage originates on film at 24 fps but is going to be played at 29.97 fps, chances are it is slowed down to 23.976 fps and then had 3:2 pulldown applied in a pattern that spreads every 4 film frames across 10 video fields.

However, the governing body that set the HD standards, the Advanced Television Standards Committee (ATSC), allows HD frame rates of 23.976, 24, 29.97, 30, 59.94, and 60 fps progressive scan.

HD Frame Rates and Sizes
size rates
1920 x 1080 23.976, 24, 29.97,

or 30 fps progressive; 29.97

or 30 fps interlaced

1280 x 720 23.976, 24, 29.97, 30, 59.94,

or 60 fps progressive

To complicate matters further, the 29.97 and 30 fps variants may also be interlaced or progressive (Table 1). Therefore, the first question to ask the client is: What frame rate should I use for the final deliverable I hand you? That’s the rate you should use when building graphics animations (in other words, what to enter for the composition’s or sequence’s frame rate). If you are going to deliver an interlaced file, HD is always upper-field first, in contrast to the lower-field first order of DV.

The second question you need to ask is: What frame rate is the footage you’re giving me? This is more devilish than you may think. Quite often, a studio won’t deliver footage as a QuickTime or AVI movie with the frame rate already embedded; it will come as a sequence of TIFF, SGI, or even Cineon DPX frames, with no inherent frame rate attached. It will be up to you to then assign the correct frame rate when you import the footage into a program such as Adobe After Effects (Figure 1).

Even if you receive footage as a QuickTime or AVI file, you can’t necessarily trust the frame rate embedded in the file. Not all HD decks automatically detect the frame rate a tape was shot at, and might play it at a different speed. Verify if the frame rate was transcribed from the tape-and preferably from the shooting notes themselves. (And if you are the shooter, please remember to mark these details on your tapes.)

In most cases, the answer to these first two questions for the jobs I’m working on is usually 23.976 fps, progressive scan. However, it is worth double-checking, as some cameras can shoot at either 24 or 23.976 fps. The difference causes subtle but obvious audio synchronization issues that become noticeable within a minute, and need to be corrected by speeding up or slowing down the audio track. For example, if the audio track was meant to go along with 24 fps footage, but you are conforming all of your footage to 23.976 fps for a final delivery, you need to slow down or stretch the audio track by 100.1 percent (some software thinks in terms of speed rather than stretch; in that case, set the speed to 99.9 percent).

Beware of complacency! On one recent job, virtually all of the dozens of clips we received (which were delivered as SGI sequences) were at 23.976 fps, except for one which was at 29.97 fps with 3:2 pulldown added. If you have footage that’s supposed to be progressive scan-such as all 23.976 or 24 fps footage-but you see the telltale “comb teeth” of interlacing on moving objects (Figure 2), you know something is wrong. Set the field order to upper-field first and ask your software to detect the pulldown sequence. And don’t automatically trust what it says: Manually step through the resulting footage to make sure you don’t see interlacing artifacts. In After Effects, Option+double-click on Mac (Alt+double-click on Windows) on the footage item in the Project window to open it in a special Footage window, and use the Page Up and Page Down keys (above the normal cursor arrows) to step through several frames to make sure you don’t see those artifacts. If you do, go back and try different pulldown phases until those artifacts disappear.

Another important issue involving frame rate is the smoothness of motion. When objects move, you get to see their new positions only 40 percent as often at 23.976 fps than you would at 29.97 fps interlaced. That means formerly smooth motion can now take on a strobing appearance.

The easiest solution to this problem is to add motion blur. If your program doesn’t support this, or if you received sources that weren’t rendered with motion blur, you may need to add it using a plug-in such as Re:Vision Effects’s ReelSmart Motion Blur ( The downside of this added blur is that you’ll lose some clarity on items such as fast-moving text (Figure 3). You may need to back off on the motion blur amount to find a compromise between smoothness and readability. Render some tests, and run them by the client before delivering the final.

Frame size and bit depth issues

Just as there are a wide variety of legal frame rates in HD, there are a variety of sizes to contend with as well. The standard HD sizes are 1920 x 1080 pixels and 1280 x 720 pixels. The larger size is far more common, but again, check to be sure, and don’t assume all of your source files are going to come in the same sizes.

In addition, some hybrid “production” sizes have emerged. A 1920 x 1080 HD frame has nearly six times more pixels than a typical 720 x 486 pixel SD frame, which can mean it takes up to six times as long to render (although it’s not always that bad; if your project is at 23.976 fps, you have to render only 40 percent as many frames as you would with a 29.97 fps interlaced project). That large frame size is also difficult to display comfortably on most monitors, and requires more bytes to store and move around a network. Some stations have started using a “half HD” size of 960 x 540 pixels, which they then scale down slightly for their SD broadcasts, and double for their HD feeds. Don’t be shocked if you receive a request to supply graphics at this size, or even the square-pixel widescreen SD sizes of 864 x 486 (NTSC) or 1024 x 576 (PAL).

But wait-there’s more. The one silver lining in the ATSC specification was that all of the higher-resolution formats used square pixels. Alas, that last refuge has been taken away from us by the HDV and DVCPRO HD formats. In HDV, a “1920 x 1080” frame is actually captured at a size of 1440 x 1080; the pixels must be stretched horizontally by a factor of 1.333 to become square again. DVCPRO HD uses the same size for PAL frame rate projects (25 frames per second, interlaced), but a different size-1280 x 1080, with a pixel aspect ratio of 1.5-for NTSC frame rate projects.

When a 1280 x 720 frame is called for, DVCPRO HD captures it at 960 x 720 pixels, also requiring a horizontal stretch of 1.333 to make the pixels square. Some software, such as Apple Motion 2 (Figure 4), supports these sizes and manages them automatically, but not all programs do yet. You may need to perform these stretches manually in the short term.

There are other size implications beyond pixels. Along with larger dimensions, HD projects are usually captured and rendered at greater bit depths. Whereas a 10-bit YUV capture and output was often considered a luxury in SD video, it is common in HD, with some systems supporting 12-bit YUV. Ask the clients what bit depth they expect delivery at: Anything over 8 bits means you need to be working in at least 16-bit RGB to render these greater bit depth files. Yes, that means longer render times (and more disk space, etc.). On the plus side, working at this greater depth often cures many issues with banding and posterizing.

You’ll need higher-resolution sources to fill these larger frames, which requires you to capture and scan at a larger size than you have before. But what if that crucial shot or photo isn’t available at a higher resolution? Scale it up-but carefully. If After Effects has an Achilles’ heel, it is scaling up objects: Sharp edges can start to look jagged once you get past 125 percent or so. I’ve been using the Resizer plug-in-part of the Anarchy Toolbox set from Digital Anarchy (click here for more info)-for this task with good results (Figure 5). Resizer offers several algorithms that have varying degrees of sharpness or smoothness; try them and see which one looks best on a particular shot (I tend toward the two Mitchell Netravali algorithms; Bicubic and Gaussian work well on soft material). Apple Shake is also famous for its scaling.

If you are re-creating or rerendering images to use in HD, don’t just make them larger-consider adding in a bit more fine detail as well. The ability to see fine details is the reason consumers are buying HD sets (aside from bragging rights).

Deliver it in your content by increasing the detail in your 3D texture maps and other elements of your design.

The widescreen format

Once you get these technical issues under control, you can address the aesthetic ones. HD always has a different aspect ratio than SD: 16:9 versus 4:3.

What are you going to do with that extra real estate on the sides? More important, what is your client going to do with it?

If you are creating separate SD and HD versions, you can take one of two initial paths: scale the SD design so that its left and right edges match up with the HD frame and cut off the excess on the top and bottom, or scale it up so the top and bottom edges match and add imagery to fill out the left and right edges. Ask the clients which they prefer. More often than not, the second path is going to be the way to go. Most HD sets are larger than SD sets; therefore, if an object appears relatively smaller in a HD frame, it will still be viewed at the same size or larger in the real world.

Figure 6 shows an excellent example of this kind of issue. The LePrevost Corporation was asked to update the logo for Buena Vista Television, which resolves to a blue rectangle in a field of white. They did the SD version first, and later were asked to do an HD version. The best solution ended up being a compromise between the “match the sides” and “match the tops” solutions.

In reality, it’s a luxury to create separate SD and HD versions. As a designer, you might prefer to do two versions because it gives you a chance to optimize the design for the different aspects and resolutions. However, more of often than not, the HD version will also be used for the SD broadcast. Therefore, the last question to ask the clients is: How are they going to go from the HD version to SD? Are they going to letter-box it or perform a “center cut,” which is when they fill out the top and bottom, and chop off the left and right sides? It’s probably going to be the latter-and that has huge design implications.

Offline Film Editing


man-filmingWhen your camera original returns from the lab you will have two identically sized rolls. One is the camera original, the other is your workprint. The camera original normally has white or other colored leader on it. Workprint rarely has leaders. Store your camera original in a safe place. Protect it in every way possible. You have spent a great deal of time, effort and money getting the images onto that negative. Without it you don’t have a film.

The workprint is the working copy of your original negative, so it is OK to cut, splice, scratch or tear the workprint. However, for the sake of showmanship and to avoid any future confusion, keep your workprint in top shape. DO NOT RUN IT ONTO THE FLOOR. Always run it on to a reel or into a lined trim bin. Make sure the lab has printed the latent edge numbers from the original on to your workprint. If they haven’t printed through, return it to the lab for a re-do. Your workprint will likely be in a A-wind position. If not, flop it over and rewind it into the A-wind position.

transferring sound to 16mm magstock

Usually, while your film is being processed, you will schedule the transfer of your 1/4″ sound rolls to 16mm Fullcoat. To save time and money, specify if you want all takes transferred or only circled takes.

syncing workprint with magstock

When syncing your workprint with 16mm Magstock, start by building a leader 8 feet long before the sync mark and 8 feet long after your sync mark for both pix and sound.

Mark your sync marks legibly. Be sure to double check your sync often, looking for sync errors. You can do this by marking your tail leader with end sync marks for reference. If they’re out you’re out of sync.

Do not use “junk” or “used” picture or mag stock as fill or slug. It can cause out-of-sync problems. Always use fresh 3M stock for filling your sound track. It is well worth the few extra cents. At the end of your sound track(s), make a definite circle at the point of last pix and sound, then leave at least 6 feet of run-out leader.

edge Coding (AKA ink coding)

Once you have pix and sound in sync, you can send your workprint and magstock out to edge coded (aka Ink Coded). These yellow ink numbers are a constant sync reference between your seperate pix and sound track. This is possible because the corresponding numbers are printed every 16 frames on both pix and sound track. You can edit dialogue productions without edge coding, but it immensely easier with these bright yellow numbers.

editing the film

Your film is created in this phase. Forget the script. Forget the production phase. You now have the actual footage from which your final result will emerge. Your film is made magic or ruined in this phase.

Before actually cutting the film, remove your temporary 8+8 foot long picture and sound leaders at the head of your pix and sound track rolls used for syncing. Replace them with a ten foot long leader before your sync mark and 8 feet after that is then spliced to your academy leader.

Before marking fades and dissolves, make sure you understand the proper marks and the theory behind them (“A” Roll/ “B” Roll).

If you have titles at the head or the end of your film, slug and mark them as part of your cut workprint. Titles should be organized and shot when you begin the editing phase so they will be ready before your last days of editing.

If you want to save time and also guarantee a professional result to your film, contact VFX LA.


Independent Film is Back in Business

This year, Sundance was booming with buyers. Over 38 films were sold; many of which were well reviewed and oozing with box office potential in a mainstream market. In addition to the financial prospect of this year’s films, there were also some well regarded, possibly star-making turns by a few up and coming actors; most notably Sundance darling Elizabeth Olsen (younger sister of Mary-Kate and Ashley).

Among some of this year’s critical winners are Martha Marcy May Marlene (starring the breakout performance of the aforementioned Elizabeth Olsen), Being Elmo (a documentary following the man behind the iconic Sesame Street character), The Greatest Movie Ever Sold (a documentary by famed Super Size Me director Morgan Spurlock about product placement, financed completely by product placement), and Win Win (a Paul Giamatti starrer, about a family that take in a 16 year old boy, by acclaimed director Tom McCarthy).

The Current Industry

In recent years, the film industry has seen a huge growth of interest in big, summer blockbusters. Studios have been clamouring to secure the rights to every comic book franchise, video game, high-concept novel, and even popular board games. Movies filled with visual effects done by great companies like VFX Los Angeles. So, in turn, there has been a significant loss of interest in the independent community. For a few years now, the idea, “you can’t sell a drama anymore” has been floating around and seemingly becoming truer.

The super-franchise that Marvel and Disney have started with Iron Man and plan to “end” with The Avengers is a prime example of the great investment some companies are making in this boom of big pictures. For those that don’t know, the idea is to have a solo, origin movie for each character of The Avengers (a sort of superhero super group) that includes Thor, Iron Man, The Hulk, Captain America, and a few others. Then, all of the original players (save for Edward Norton who is replaced by Mark Ruffalo) come together for one, ultimate blockbuster extravaganza.

Its cinematic events like these that have cast a huge shadow over the independent film market. How is an intimate character drama supposed to compete with the latest Transformers film? It can’t. And, really, it’s not trying to most of the time. But, what the studios can do is suck away the interest and intrigue from the independents. Of course, this is just a fad like any other, but right now we’re in a very special part of this story: the comeback.

The Change

If you look at this year’s Best Picture Oscar nominees compared to last year, you’ll note the difference in independents versus studio pictures. The Best Picture nominees of the 82nd Academy Awards are as follows:


  • The Hurt Locker


  • Avatar
  • District 9
  • An Education
  • Inglorious Basterds
  • Precious
  • A Serious Man
  • Up
  • Up In The Air

This year’s nominees are:

  • ·Black swan
  • ·127 Hours
  • ·The King’s Speech
  • ·Inception
  • ·Winter’s Bone
  • Toy Story 3
  • The Kid’s Are Alright
  • The Social Network
  • True Grit
  • The Fighter

If you notice, this year has 6 independent nominees as opposed to last year’s 4. It may not seem like much, but jumping from the minority to the majority in one year is a big leap. Now, I’m not saying that the Oscars are the end all and determining factor of what’s hot or not, but this does represent a giant leap in interest and value of an independent film. Not to mention, films like Black Swan have been great successes with both critics and audiences alike.

So, this leads me to my point: independent films are making their comeback. I’d expect to see a lot of independent successes in the next couple years, leading to many filmmakers creating smaller, more intimate pictures, and, ultimately, setting off a new boom of indie films. How do you foresee the future of film?

Home Theater Audio

Receivers, Separates, and Sound Options

Choosing the main audio component for home theater and sound playback formats can be a little intimidating, but also fun once the pieces are set in place.

Depending on budget and desire for certain components, buyers have numerous choices on the audio side of home theater entertainment. In the beginning, especially with a low budget in hand, it’s better to start off simply.

Receiver Or Separates: The Oldest Question In The Book

This is one of the oldest questions about home theater audio. Consumers read reviews and use their own experience and preferences on which products to buy. Some people prefer Yamaha, while others prefer Denon. Others may prefer higher-priced separate components and skip the big name brand companies. There are supporters on each side of the issue and the battle won’t soon die down.

A receiver can be the core of an audio system, offering the ability not only to decode digital audio formats found on DVD and Blu-ray disc but can be used as a radio and can send video signals to a high definition display. The advantages of using a receiver lie inconvenience, price, and (usually) easy use, plus the ability to decode the current sound formats. They can be purchased locally or online for reasonable prices. A receiver can be a fine choice in starting a new home theater system, or in upgrading a current one. Keep in mind that audio signals through a receiver that digitizes are never sounded good.

Some audiophiles may prefer using components to separate traditional two-channel music from the multichannel sound. Separates can, depending on the company that makes them, sound superior on two-channel recordings. The idea here is to separate analog sources like an LP or analog cables from a CD player or computer (run via USB to an outboard digital-to-analog converter) into a pre-amplifier. There is also the option to add a more powerful amplifier to the system. Audiophiles still can still use a receiver or dedicated surround sound processor for decoding DVD and Blu-ray discs as long as the receiver has a pre-out jack.

Sound Formats

Here’s a breakdown on the most common current sound formats. Each format can vary in how many channels they can play back, from 1.0 (mono) to 7.1 (seven channels, plus a subwoofer track).


·Uncompressed PCM (pulse code modulation)

·Dolby Digital

·DTS (Digital Theater Systems)


·Uncompressed PCM (pulse modulation)

·Dolby Digital

·Dolby TrueHD

·DTS-HD Master Audio

There’s been debate over which sound format is best. Each has its merits. What are the differences in these sound formats?

Uncompressed PCM

Uncompressed PCM sound is the most accurate method in hearing a movie soundtrack. Sony, Disney, and Warner Bros. home video released many of their early Blu-ray discs in this format. It’s essentially the same as getting sound from the original studio mix. But in the last year, all of the studios have been releasing their Blu-ray discs in either Dolby TrueHD and/or DTS-HD Master Audio. PCM tracks found on DVD are usually featured on concert videos. PCM can sound superior to any of the compressed sound formats if they’re mastered properly. PCM can also sound cleaner and offer better sound staging than the compressed audio formats.

Dolby Or DTS

Dolby and DTS compress the sound. In other words, those formats take out what the human ear apparently can’t hear. This is very similar to how MP3 files work. To some, there is no difference in PCM versus any of the compressed sound formats. To others, there is a difference. Compressed sound takes away the clarity and dynamic sound quality found on many movie soundtracks.

Dolby Digital is perfectly adequate for DVD, but it does have some shortcomings. The audio is highly compressed, and depending on the soundtrack on how it was mixed and then presented on DVD, can sound just ok or very good. Audio playback can range from a paltry 192kbps (kilobytes per second) to 448kbps.

DTS is an alternative, and to some, superior to Dolby Digital. This format still compresses audio, but not as severely as Dolby Digital. The sound can be louder and clearer in some cases, but not all.

Dolby TrueHD or DTS-HD Master Audio

On Blu-ray, Dolby TrueHD and DTS-HD Master Audio have the ability to present highly improved sound quality over DVD. Each format runs at a high megabyte per second rate, letting the sound breathe and not sound trapped or bottled up.

These formats are advertised as being identical to the original sound mix, but that can be debatable in some instances. With time-and-phase correct speakers, like those from Vandersteen or Thiel, some of these soundtracks may sound a bit compressed. On other speakers, they may not. Both formats, regardless, are a huge improvement over the audio featured on DVD.

Depending on the original mix, or how the DVD/Blu-ray discs were mastered, not all soundtracks will sound excellent. Some titles may have been mastered at a lower volume, or some older titles may sound a bit distorted due to their original recordings. Some titles may have been recorded poorly, to begin with. Just be aware that not all movies will blast everyone out of their chairs, and weren’t meant to.

Sound Effects in Audio Field Recording Guide

How to Capture Everyday Sound Effects and Ambience Outdoors

Learn how audio location recording in typical outdoor locations can enhance homemade podcasts and video recordings.

Recording audio on location is a great way to document the essence of many urban spaces, add life to podcasts, and improve the quality of video recordings. Modern audio field recording gear is much cheaper, smaller, and less obtrusive than before. This is an introduction on how to get good sound outdoors.

Recorder and Microphone Types

For urban field recording, a good choice is a small field recorder using memory cards of the same type as used in digital cameras. Something like a Zoom H2 is a good combination of stereo microphone and recorder all in one that fits in the palm of your hand. This gives you more than 2 hours of recording time on a 2GB SD card. Similar field recorders use Compact Flashcards.

Microphone for Audio Field Recording

Get closer to the Sound Source!

The first rule of audio field recording is to get close to the subject, particularly if it is dialogue. To record speech, the microphone should really be within a couple of meters of the speaker. Any further and the speech will become muddied by ambient noise; and particularly indoors, reflections off hard surfaces can make the speech indistinct if the microphone is much further away from the subject than the nearest wall.

Don’t hold the microphone

Do not let anyone hold your microphone. It turns vibrations into signals on your recording, and that includes the sound of the muscle tension in the hand. Use a tripod or stand to hold the microphone close to the subject; this will result in a better recording than if someone holds it.

Move away from unwanted noise

In an indoor setting, you can usually turn off unwanted noise sources like a radio or air-conditioning. Outdoors you can’t usually do that, so you have to move away from noise sources and closer to your subject. The ear is very good at discriminating against extraneous noise, so you have to listen critically, not just for what you want to hear, but also to check there is not too much of what you don’t want to hear. Or record a section and listen to the playback – it is always better to get the cleanest original recording.

Wind noise is often a problem. Most field recorders come with a basic foam windshield – these are typically good for wind speeds up to about 5 mph. Any more and you will have problems with a rumbling sound in your recording – try and move to a less windy location or wait till it dies down. Alternatively, shield the mic with a ‘tent’ made of cloth like a T-shirt held on a wireframe.

Use the manual record level, not automatic

An automatic record level sounds like a great idea, but it saps the life from a recording. In a typical city location, as soon as the talent stops talking, automatic record level winds up the levels, boosting things like traffic noise to the same level as the speaker’s voice. When the speaker starts again, the traffic noise is dropped, weakening the continuity of the recording. With digital recording, simply allow plenty of headroom and lift levels in editing.

Record uncompressed audio

Recording in a compressed format like mp3 or Windows Media reduces the quality of your recording, making it harder to filter and recompress without distortion.

sound effects being recorded in a studio

Work within the limitations of your equipment

If you want to record wildlife sounds like birdsong or very quiet or very loud sounds you will need different techniques. The simple techniques described here will let you record audio for podcasts, photography, and videography under typical field conditions. If the audio will be synchronized to a video recording, a clapper board and spoken take number help match the recordings up.


These simple techniques will help you capture good audio from outdoor locations, for podcasting, video, and documentary purposes.

How to Identify If Audio Equipment Is Grounded

Know if Hi-Fi Separates are Earthed or Ungrounded to Avoid Hum

Knowing whether there is a ground connection to Hi-Fi equipment can be useful when tracing ground loops and hum problems.

Is it worth being aware that mains-powered audio equipment comes in two main variants when it comes to tracing hum problems in domestic Hi-Fi systems? There is no performance difference – it is perfectly possible to make good sounding audio equipment which either has a mains ground connection or to make it without a ground connection.

However, using more than one item grounded to mains earth in a domestic audio system can lead to ground loops (also known as earth loops) which can lead to hum in the system. It is, therefore, necessary to identify whether Hi-Fi equipment is grounded or ungrounded.

How to Identify Audio Equipment that Does Not Have a Mains Ground (Earth) Connection

The easiest and most sure-fire way to identify a piece of ungrounded equipment is to look for a two-pin mains plug. A two-pin mains plug by definition has no earth connection, this piece of equipment will, therefore, be ungrounded.

In some countries such as the UK, nearly all mains plugs are three-pin, making this harder to see. For equipment with detachable mains cables, there is another plug in the system – the chassis-mounted plug on the equipment itself that the mains lead plugs into. If this is two-pin then the piece of equipment is ungrounded.

Other things to look for are a mains cable that has just two cores – these are often of a flat or oval cross-section rather than round cross-section. In the UK if the equipment is described as Class II or double-insulated it has no ground connection. Audio equipment that is powered from a wall-wart or plug-in power supply almost always does not have a mains ground, though there are some very rare exceptions.

How to Identify Audio Equipment that Has a Mains Ground (Earth) Connection

Unlike the infallible test for ungrounded equipment, it is not possible to conclusively state that a piece of equipment is grounded just because it has a three-pin power plug. However, if it is described as Class 1 insulated in the UK it is definitely grounded. Likewise, equipment that has a round cross-section non-detachable mains cable is likely to be grounded. The only way to know for sure is to perform a multimeter test.

How Electrical Safety Works in Grounded and Ungrounded Audio Equipment

There are two accepted ways of keeping people safe from mains power. One is to connect all exposed metal to the mains safety earth, which is carried on the third prong of the mains plug. The alternative, depending on the particular country electrical code, is to ensure that all mains power connections, live and neutral, are isolated by at least two insulating layers, one of which may be air. Such equipment may have just a two prong power cable.

How to Avoid Ground Loops in Hi Fi Equipment

Make sure that only one piece of equipment in the Hi Fi system is grounded – preferably the amplifier or control unit/pre-amplifier. If more than one piece of equipment is grounded, then plug the grounded components into the same distribution board or wall socket pair to minimize the ground loops and susceptibility to hum.


Secure Digital Memory Card (SD Memory Card)

The SD memory card is a special version of the MultiMediaCard. MultiMediaCards can also be used to store copyright-free content in devices with SD card slots. Starting in the 1st quarter of 2001, EMTEC will offer storage capacities of 32 and 64 megabytes. The SD memory cards cannot be read by the older MMC-compatible devices